Following the ideals of Pugin, amplified by Ruskin, the call for a return to a golden age of craftsmanship with respect for the individual became a moral as well as an aesthetic crusade in mid-century Britain. A number of idealistic artists, architects and thinkers found inspiration that was essentially mediaeval but went beyond the imitative aspect of the Gothic Revival.
William Morris and his collaborators and followers, now collectively known as the Arts and Crafts movement, reacted against the worst by-products of industrialisation, poverty and social injustice, and believed in a link between these ills and mass-manufactured, poorly designed goods and shoddy housing.
Ironically perhaps, the railways, the most omnipresent sign of industrialisation, opened up unspoilt Cotswolds villages as an escape from sordid city life and provided easy access to its commercial markets. The villages of Daneway and Sapperton were colonised by craft workers who shared their wealthy patrons’ respect for past styles and high standards of craftsmanship.
Inspired by Morris, their attitude towards historic buildings was based on conservation rather than ‘improvement’. Thus the past and the modern imperceptibly fuse at magical Cotswold Farm, while Rodmarton, begun as late as 1909, seems as if it has always been there.
Ernest Gimson and the Barnsleys, who built and furnished Rodmarton, were not alone: in 1902 C.R. Ashbee had moved the entire Guild of Handicraft, workers and their families, from East London to rural Chipping Campden. Later exponents, like C.F. Voysey, turned towards a newer, more ascetic style, yet worked alongside their mediaevally-inspired colleagues. Nowhere is this better illustrated than at Madresfield where Ashbee and Voysey worked in the early twentieth century with Payne’s Birmingham Group who created the extraordinary chapel later immortalised in Waugh’s Brideshead Revisited.
Oxford, Kelmscott, Broadway. The coach leaves Oxford Railway Station at 11.00am. Begin in the Ashmolean Museum – a treasure-house of art and artefacts from many civilizations. Kelmscott is the most evocative and best known of the houses associated with William Morris. It looked to him as if it had ‘grown up out of the soil’, and became his spiritual as well as his family home. It now holds an outstanding collection of his possessions and works: furniture, original textiles, pictures, books, carpets, ceramics and metalwork. All four nights are spent in Broadway.
Rodmarton, Selsley, Cotswold Farm. The first commission for Morris and Co was from architect G.F. Bodley for stained glass for All Saints Church in Selsley, which therefore contains work by Burne-Jones, Rossetti, Madox Brown, Philip Webb and Morris himself. Rodmarton is one of the last country houses to be built and furnished in a traditional style, by hand with local stone, local timber and local craftsmen. Cotswold Farm was extended for the Birchall family by Sidney Barnsley in 1926, who also took over supervision of the works at Rodmarton after his brother Ernest’s death. There are many details in the Arts & Crafts style, such as the Burne-Jones window in the Dining room, and iron and woodwork on the staircase and doors throughout the house.
Chipping Campden, Madresfield. In 1902 C.R. Ashbee and his Guild of Handicraft arrived in the hitherto quiet village of Chipping Campden. Here they set up workshops, some of which survive to this day, and their lives and skills are celebrated in a small museum. The Guild’s most important commission was the library for Lord Beauchamp at Madresfield Court, an ancient moated manor house sympathetically extended in the 19th century. At the same time the Birmingham Group led by Henry Payne decorated and furnished Madresfield’s celebrated chapel that so enchanted Evelyn Waugh, a family friend.
Broadway, Cheltenham. Broadway now houses a branch of the Ashmolean Museum focusing on vernacular British decorative arts. The Gordon Russell museum showcases an arts and crafts-trained designer whose work is influential today. The Museum and Art Gallery in Cheltenham, self-styled ‘capital’ of the Cotswolds, contains a nationally important Arts and Crafts collection, and contemporary work by their artistic descendants.
Oxford. Oxford was the meeting place of William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones. Follow in their footsteps to the beautiful Burne-Jones window in Christ Church Cathedral. The coach takes you to Oxford Railway Station by 12.30pm. If you are joining The Divine Office music festival, staff at Oxford Railway Station will assist with getting a taxi to your chosen hotel (included in the cost of the festival). The first festival event is at 2.45pm.
Price, per person
Two sharing: £1,740. Single occupancy: £2,030.
Hotel accommodation; private coach throughout; breakfasts, 1 lunch and 3 dinners with wine, water, coffee; all admissions; all tips; the services of the lecturer and tour manager.
The Lygon Arms, Broadway: 16th-century coaching inn; some parts date back to the 14th century. Situated in the high street of Broadway.
There is quite a lot of walking on this tour and it would not be suitable for anyone with difficulties with everyday walking and stair-climbing. Coaches can rarely park near the houses, and gardens are extensive. Average distance by coach per day: c. 64 miles.
Between 10 and 22 participants.